As part of its weekly most interactive and educative SOCIAL MEDIA MONK session, The Readers Hub-Gh is pleased to bring to you another informative, insightful and intellectually engaging interaction with one of our ardent readers, Dr Fredrick Dayour.
He is a Lecturer of Tourism and Hospitality at the SD Dombo University of Business and Integrated Development Studies (UBIDS-Wa), Department of Community Development, Faculty of Planning and Land Management. He obtained both his Master of Philosophy and Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management at the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Cape Coast. Later he obtained his PhD in Tourism and Hospitality at the University of Surrey, UK. He also earned a postgraduate certificate in Higher Education and is currently a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, UK. He is also a Senior Research Fellow at the School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
The word tourism is derived from the French word ‘Turisme’. It literally means to tour and travel. It is the process of temporary movement in the particular destination undertaken by the human that starts from one point, and ultimately ends at the point where one started the journey from. It is a phenomenon of human character related to tour and traveling at a particular area, locality, sites, places, etc. But traveling without any reason for temporary stay cannot be termed as tourism. Tourism is about people who travel away from their familiar home environment for many reasons.
In order to know the meaning of tourism, one should also know the simple ideology of tour. Tour is derived from the Latin word “toumel or tourness” Greek word, which refers to circle. The oxford dictionary relates tour as a journey for pleasure, during which one visits several areas. Therefore, one who undertakes such a journey is called as tourist. The word tourism came to be added in the English dictionary only after 19th Century.
Tourism has become a global and highly competitive socio-economic and environmental activity in both developed and developing countries.
In Ghana it is the fastest growing industry that stimulates other sectors in the national economy, such as agriculture, transport, manufacturing, real estates, industries and others. It is an important vehicle that can be harnessed by developing countries to speed up their drive towards socio-economic transformation.
One school of thought asserts that; tourism is the act of travelling for pleasure; also, the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating and entertaining tourists and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international or within the traveller’s country.
Today, tourism is a major source of income to many countries and affects the economy of both the source and host countries. The increasing number of tourists and the evolving profile of today’s traveler demand a host of new tourism offering and infrastructure projects.
The hospitality industry is a broad category off fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line and additional fields within the tourism industry.
In a related development, the term ‘hospitality’ refers to the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or commercially. Indians are known the world over for their hospitality ‘Atithi Devo Bhavah’ (‘The Guest is like a God’).
It has been our adage from ancient time. It is because of this heritage that Ghana, with its numerous hotels, has been considered as one of the world’s leading hospitality venues (Raghubalari & Smritee Raghubalan 2010)
Accommodation is a basic need of tourism activity. Without accommodation, it would not be easy to build up tourism even in the world’s most beautiful places. (David Carr, 2011) The service industry also includes hospitality industry which is bifurcated into viz., lodging, and restaurants, planning an event, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields in the tourism industry.
It is instructive to note that the hospitality industry is a multi-dollar industry that depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality utility unit as a restaurant, hotel, or an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, bartenders, management, and human resource).
A wide spectrum of investment opportunities arises out of Ghana’s long-term tourism plans, which can enable the growth and sustenance of the industry. Investors are therefore encouraged to invest in tourist information shops, which are of high demand in some major tourists’ centers in the country particularly Accra, Kumasi, cape coast and some border entry points.
Investors can also consider investing in the tourism financial services; these services are in short supply and as the visitor traffic grows, there will be the need for such services particularly: Credit card Agents or Discount house to offer credit to pay bills at arrears which do not accept credit cards. Foreign exchange Bureau, though these are many, there is more room for improvement. There is also the growing demand for the rental of catering, camping, picnic accessories as well as mobile phone and toilets in Ghana; all in the service of travellers, event organizers etc.
Investors are also entreated to invest on shopping malls. Survey indicates that most visitors to Ghana return home with most of their pocket (spending) money because the country does not offer tempting shopping opportunities despite her wealth in products.
The industry is a labour-intensive and support diverse and versatile labour market, they provide small-scale employment opportunities, such as Travel and Tours, Accommodation Food & Beverage, Transportation, Attractions, Craft Villages, Events & Conferences, and many more, which help to promote gender equity. Tourism has been known to diversify economies, create jobs, generate revenue for governments and stimulate businesses.
Aviation plays a central role in supporting tourism. In Africa, an estimated 5.8% people are employed by influx of overseas visitors, most of whom arrive in the region by air, and contributed $46billion to GDP in African economies in 2014.
The importance of strategic air links cannot be understated; business, leisure, and tourism all require reliable, affordable, frequent connections to key destinations in order to flourish and grow. The increasing number of tourists and the evolving profile of today’s traveler demand a host of new tourism offering and infrastructure projects. A wide spectrum of investment opportunities arise out of Ghana’s long-term tourism plans.
As noted by the UNWTO Secretary General, Dr. Taleb Rifai, in Berlin, (6/03/2015.) “There is nothing like the experience of being with the wonderful, beautiful, warm and hospitable people of Ghana”
Bassing: I feel greatly honoured to be granted the latitude to moderate tonight’s session. My name is Bassing Kamal sitting in for your regular host, Dr Hakeem Tahiru (Dr Tilapia). And to help us discuss the topic held supra is Dr Fredrick Dayour. Please Doc, you are welcome to the Readers Hub most interactive and intellectually engaging weekly session on our Social Media Monk handle.
Dr Dayour: Thanks for having me and I am equally most grateful for the opportunity to share my thoughts with others on this very important topic.
Bassing: Without wasting much time let’s set the ball rolling. Briefly tell us what the tourism and hospitality industry entails.
Dr Dayour: Tourism is the movement of people outside their usual places of residence/abode for either leisure, business (business tourism), treatment (medical tourism), spiritual reasons (pilgrimage), or entertainment etc. Strictly speaking, the person should have an overnight stay at the destination to qualify as a tourist.
It is instructive to note that, if a person travels outside the usual place of residence for either of the aforementioned and returns to his/her origin in less than 24 hours, then the person is an excursionist and the activity undertaken is an Excursion. E.g. If you travel to Mole National Park and return home the same day, regardless of your origin, you are an Excursionist.
Taking it a step further, there are two main types of tourism: Domestic and International/inbound tourism. The former is about citizens travelling within their own country while the latter is about ‘non-citizens’ travelling into a country for tourism. Hence, we have international tourists and domestic tourists. If a Ghanaian resident visits Kakum National park for sightseeing and ends up staying overnight, he/she is a Domestic Tourist.
In a related development-Hospitality originates from the Latin word “hospitum” which means a place of rest and protection for the ill and weary. Hospitality is about welcoming and caring for a guest or traveler’s needs during a vacation. It involves the provision of services such as food and beverage, accommodation, entertainment, transportation among others. So basically, this is what the industry entails
Bassing: Impressive and very revealing! But then, one may wish to find out
Is there a symbiotic functional relationship between the tourism industry and the hospitality industry?
Dr Dayour: There is a functional and symbiotic relationship between tourism and hospitality to the extent that there will be no tourism without hospitality and without tourism most hospitality products like airlines, hotels, and restaurants will suffer terrible low patronage or even fold up. Attractions serve as the initial pull for most ancillary services (Akyeampong and Aseidu, 2002).
When visitors travel for sightseeing involving overnight or return trips, they must have food and beverage, accommodation and other services. Therefore, the hospitality and tourism industry is a system comprising various sub-industries and each industry player must play its role to ensure quality and customer satisfaction
For instance, if a tourist visits Cape Coast and enjoys a tour round the castle and later gets ripped off by a taxi driver or suffers from food poisoning after patronizing a restaurant, these can ruin the entire experience and may invite negative reviews/word-of-mouth which can ward off potential visitors to the destination. Note that a dissatisfied customer, on average, tells 10 other people about their experience (Mensah, 2010). So, all stakeholders need to play their respective roles well
Bassing: This is most revealing and is good the authorities concerned get to know this. That notwithstanding:
In what ways do the tourism and hospitality industry contribute to Ghana’s socio- economic development?
Dr Dayour: The industry is, no doubt, a major contributor to the social and economic development of the country. The industry contributes about 10.3% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) globally and in Ghana, contributes about 5% to GDP translating into GHC17,497.3 million (Word Travel and Tourism Council, 2020).
In terms of job creation, the industry is responsible for 5.2% (623,000) of all jobs in the economy directly and indirectly (WTTC, 2020). This makes the tourism and hospitality industry the 4th largest contributor to the country’s GDP after cocoa, gold and oil (Oxford Business Group, 2020).
Bassing: So, what have we done right and what have we not done right, as a nation, in the development, and promotion of the tourism industry?
Dr Dayour: That is an interesting one. Going forward, I think Ghana has made progress in developing the tourism and hospitality industry dating back to the pre-1950s when the main market/patrons were the foreign merchants and colonial masters.
Here catering rest stops and camp grounds in the Eastern and Volta regions were mostly patronized by foreigners as part of their pastime activities. Fast forward, the Structural Adjustment Programmed (SAP) in the 80s which was pushed on ailing economies – leading to the liberalization of the economy, saw the penetration of the private sector and foreign companies into the hospitality and tourism industry in Ghana. Successive governments before this time were the main investors in the tourism industry.
I can say we have made good progress in terms of governments’ commitment through the establishment of a dedicated Ministry of Tourism and Ghana Tourism Authority to make policies and ensure standards respectively in the industry.
Moreover, the proliferation of tourism and hospitality enterprises albeit notoriously urban based is another mark of progress. Tourists arrivals (domestic and international) before COVID-19 have been on the rise with the country receiving nearly 1 million international visitors by the end of 2019 (Ministry of Tourism, 2019) but more needs to be done.
Indubitably, data is the lifeblood of policy decisions in most developed economies but the data situation in Ghana’s tourism industry is one of the major concerns. There is a huge gap in the collection and availability of data and/or statistics on the industry (in comparison to some destinations such as the Gambia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, UK, USA, France, Italy, China, etc.), which the Ministry of Tourism, and the Ghana Tourism Authority (GTA) must bridge.
Most of the countries mentioned, heretofore, with the aid of ubiquitous technology, gather data in real time at their tourism facilities and make them available to the public, especially academics who need such massive survey data for research. This cannot help us track growth (if at all we are interested in doing so) or understand market dynamics in the industry such as consumption patterns, demand, and products and services among others.
Also, as a country, we rely so much on our ‘God-gifted’ traditional tourism resources such as the ecological, cultural heritage and historical attractions, the effort to have a more competitive edge over other countries in Africa especially in Domestic Tourism might be farfetched.
Empirical studies have demonstrated that repeat visits to attractions by Ghanaians are averagely two times (Dayour, 2013). From a personal experience, it becomes almost a lackluster and uninspiring to visit an ecological site such as a game reserve, forest reserve or waterfall for more than once. I think the simple message here is that Ghanaians want to experience something different or better still have a different and persuasive reason to travel within the country for leisure (Dayour, 2019).
In advanced tourism destinations such as France, UK, USA, China and Germany diverse man-made superstructures including theme parks, amusement parks, casinos and museums among others have been introduced to complement their historical and naturals attractions. Such man-made attractions have a stronger propensity of attracting more repeat visits not only by domestic tourists (e.g. families and groups) but also, inbound tourists.
The reason is that these amusement superstructures stimulate active participation by clients. Though such investments may require huge capital outlays, especially in the effort to spread them across the country, the Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture could either engage the private sector to invest or enter into PPP agreements to develop these superstructures.
In effect, I think there should be diversification of the attraction offerings in the country to include more man-made recreational facilities not only in Accra but possibly in all regional capitals. I strongly believe the range of activities associated with such superstructure, especially theme parks when developed, will whip up the predilection to engage in Domestic Tourism and excursions in Ghana; and in doing so, not only create job opportunities but boost government revenue.
Bassing: Wow! Succinct! Now let’s be more practical. From where you sit,
What is the impact of COVID-19 on Ghana’s hospitality and tourism industry and what can we do to keep the industry running amidst the pandemic?
Dr Dayour: Good question! Willy-nilly, global travel, tourism businesses and leisure have been immobilized by preventive measures put in place by various governments including travel bans, social distancing, city lockdowns, self and mandatory quarantines, and ‘stay home’ campaigns among others.
Data as at August 24 virus shows that the pandemic has resulted in about 23 million confirmed cases, and 806, 4010 deaths worldwide (WTO, 2020), and the tourism and hospitality industry is the worst hit among all the major economic sectors (Gössling, Scott, & Hall, 2020).
Projections by the UNWTO (2020) show that global international tourist arrivals will fall between 58-78% for the year, estimated between US$910 billion and US$1.2 trillion in export revenues from tourism based on how the crisis and travel restrictions pan out.
This global picture is mirrored in Ghana with hotel occupancy rate dropping from 70% to 30% (Mensah, 20202). In total, the industry has lost about $1.7 million in revenue due to the impact of COVID-19 (MoT, 2020). Several workers have been laid off from hotels and restaurants in order to keep overhead cost down.
The above notwithstanding, the gradual easing of restrictions including the operation of open-air drinking sports, tourists’ attractions and the recent opening of the Kotoka Airport will likely improve the performance of the industry in the coming months though some experts believe the industry will witness full recovery in the next 3 years (Mensah, 2020).
While the opening of the airport is likely to increase international tourists arrivals in the coming months, it will not be a smart decision to rely solely on this external source of market because of the general trepidation to travel due to increasing infection rates and the mandatory COVID-19 test that needs to be done at the origin and at the destination (for $150).
These issues may discourage leisure travellers and backpackers (budget travellers) because of the risk of infection during travel and the cost of undertaking a test respectively. Therefore, our best bet is to focus more on and promote domestic tourism.
Unlike International Tourism that is often susceptible to various shocks including but not limited to terror attacks, natural disasters and political instabilities, Domestic Tourism is often more resilient to such shocks. Countries that rely mainly on International Travel receipts suffer more from such uncertainties than those with large domestic tourist markets which can bolster the economy until the destination recovers from the shock (Dayour, 2019).
To this extent therefore, the Ministry of Tourism and the Ghana Tourism Authority need to embark on rigorous promotional campaigns to whip up the need to travel locally and encourage inbound visitors.
Industry players especially Small and Medium Sized Enterprises should also take advantage of the GH¢600 million stimulus package provided by the government to support their businesses out of the crisis.
The state needs to take advantage of the “root tourism” undertaken by the diaspora Africans by re-launching the ‘Beyond the Return’ project when the industry eventually recovers from COVID-19.
Bassing: These are great ideas that government should try to implement. That being said
What are the existential and potential challenges and prospects of Ghana’s tourism and hospitality industry?
1. Standards of services offered by low scale receptive facilities within accommodation, food and beverage and transport sub sectors is of low quality. There is a serious need to improve standards in order to have a competitive edge over other destinations in the region. Here, the Ghana Tourism Authority needs to reinforce its role as the regulator in that regard to enable the industry meet international standards.
2. Most roads to tourist attractions especially in the Volta region are in a very bad state and discourage many potential visitors from visiting those attractions.
3. There is a lack of relevant statistics on different tourist markets, which makes it difficult to ascertain arrivals and to do forecasting in the industry.
4. There remain risk concerns among backpackers and other tourists about crime against tourists in our cities.
Theoretically, the attraction of ‘attraction’ declines over time and what becomes an attraction today may cease to be an attraction tomorrow. Therefore, Ghana’s over reliance on our heritage attractions without complementing that with other man-made attractions like theme parks/amusement parks to boost domestic tourism may result in a decline of the destination’s attractiveness to domestic travellers.
The proliferation of budget/low scale accommodation facilities in Ghana (Badu-Baiden, Boakye, & Otoo, 2016) creates a relevant prospect for the backpacker market to thrive. The largely youthful nature of this segment suggests many of them travel on constrained budgets – making budget accommodation facilities the most favoured accommodation for backpackers.
Another potential for growth is the many unexplored natural tourism resources in the country – most of which are found in the peripheries of the country in especially the Northern and Volta regions of Ghana. Most budget travelers seek out the untouched and unexplored destinations of the world (Elsrud, 2001); hence, Ghana’s richness in several unexplored resources makes it ideal for backpacking especially the adventure seekers.
There is a potential for more resort development across the country. Government can engage the private sector in this regard to spread tourism receptive facilities across the country to make the benefits of tourism more inclusive.
Bassing: Does tourism pose any existential or potential implications for Ghana’s national peace and security? In other words, it is possible that terrorists could enter our country under the disguise of tourists?
Dr Dayour: Unlike the advanced destinations of Europe and Americas where tourism poses some level of risk to their citizenry, Ghana is relatively stable in that regard. Terrorists who disguise themselves as tourists often target other tourists (local or international) as ambassadors of their respective nations and will often go after them. In other words, terrorists seeking to attack the UK for example, can do so by killing its citizen(s) on a tour within or without the country.
Though Ghana has not witnessed any such attacks as yet, the insurgence of extremist groups in Burkina Faso, Mali and others in the region is a wake-up call. There is the need for a surveillance of our borders and attraction sites to ward off such potential threats. Hotels, restaurants, and entertainment center’s need to put in measures to detect, deter and prevent such potential attacks.
Bassing: Though various Governments have shown commitment in their quest to make Accra the cleanest city in Africa, the issue of sanitation seems to be fighting them back. From where you sit:
How poor sanitation management does affect the growth of Ghana’s tourism and hospitality industry?
Dr Dayour: Thanks for the question. Good sanitation management is very important to tourism development to the effect that; destinations that are filthy become a lackluster and often deter potential victors (Mensah, 2012). It is, however, imperative to establish that tourists also engage in unsustainable practices such as noise making, disrespect for local cultures and littering of the environment. Backpackers (youth travellers) are noted for such unsustainable behaviours at the destination (Dayour, 2019).
Ghana needs to up its game on sanitation/hygiene around our receptive facilities and cities especially along the coast where people defecate on beaches. You will remember a Joy News documentary on ‘defecating on the beach’ where one of Ghana kingpin attractions is located i.e. the Cape Coast Castle. Several of such practices are happening on most of our beaches in Ghana which is off-putting.
You will also agree with me that successive governments have been battling with sanitation issues in our major cities for so many years. Destinations that exhibit high standards regarding sanitation/hygiene tend to generate more pull among potential visitors.
The effort to keep Ghana clean requires a stronger enforcement of our laws on sanitation/hygiene. Community task forces on sanitation could be established (if not already in existence) to enforce the laws here. Immediate fines should also be used/considered as done in advanced countries to deter people from such practices.
Bassing: Impressive! Taking it a step further, there is a latent believe that before private multinational corporations from Europe, America and Asia arrive in Ghana – and other natural resource rich African countries – as foreign direct investors (FDIs), they usually come, first, under the disguise of tourists to study our economy performance, political climate, as well as investment prospects and risks.
Is there any positive correlation between a growth in the hospitality and tourism industry and the growth of foreign direct investment in Ghana?
Dr Dayour: Another interesting question. It is a fact that some of those who engage in FDIs in the hospitality and tourism industry of a country were once tourists. Potential investors in other countries can send their agents to targeted countries as tourists to study the economic, political and social climates to determine the feasibility of investing in such destinations.
So yes, there is a positive correlation between growth in the sector and FDIs, such that if potential investors find that a country has the enabling environment in terms of the laws governing investments in the sector, the presence of other tourism/hospitality related businesses, high tourists arrivals as well as political stability and cultural tolerance, they are more likely to come as investors.
There are many multinational corporations in the accommodation, food and beverage and transportation sub-sectors such as Movenpick, Holiday Inn, Kempinski, KFC, and many airline companies. Though this is good for Ghana, the government needs to maintain a good balance by encouraging domestic investors to invest in the industry to avoid leakages. Leakages come through FDIs in two main ways:
1. Most often, the top management staffs of foreign companies are non-Ghanaians who often have their salaries paid into foreign bank account with fewer chances of such earnings being spent in Ghana.
2. In order to maintain quality standards, most of these companies import almost everything needed to operate their facilities including fixtures, food staff and other services hence a large amount of the revenue generated locally is spent outside the country. This reduces the multiplier effect (the extent to which the revenue generated locally through FDI spreads within the local economy) of the revenue generated from FDI in the country.
Bassing: To what extent does climate change pose imminent threat to Ghana’s flora and fauna, and to the Ghana’s tourism industry, for that matter?
Dr Dayour: Weather and climate are essential factors influencing tourism, which is important not only economically but also in terms of human entertainment, relaxation, and recreation. In some parts of the world, the climate itself is the main feature promoting tourism and for further development of tourism, it is critical that climate remains favourable for particular pleasurable activities like Ice Skating in the Polar Regions, Skiing and sightseeing among others.
Climate variability is threatening the very survival of flora and fauna (globally) upon which tourism and hospitality depend and Ghana is no exception. Anecdotal evidence suggests that rising temperatures and erratic rainfalls threaten the survival of wildlife and plant ecosystems especially in the Northern part of the country where these are severe. Especially, erratic rainfalls and the drying up of water bodies resulting from protracted dry seasons are, in part, believed to be causing a decrease in plant and animal species in the country.
QUESTIONS TIME WITH OUR READERS FROM (THE READERS HUB-GH)
Nuhu Zulka: How important is tourism to sports development in Ghana?
Dr Dayour: Thanks for the question Nuhu. Sports tourism is quite well developed in other part of the world but I am not sure of how many Ghanaians travel locally to take part or observe sporting activities at their leisure. It is also not clear how the Ghana Tourism is leveraging that as part of their marking campaigns. But I strongly believe this an important area that could be tapped to boost growth in the industry.
Isaac: Notwithstanding the benefits of the tourism industry you just enumerated, it appears the sector is under resourced by past and present government to enable it perform its core mandate, hence the decline in revenue generation. What is your opinion on this assertion?
Dr Dayour: I couldn’t agree with you more on this Isaac. Until now when we are witnessing some support to the industry by government, the industry was under performing because of this challenge. You will recall that last year Government secured funding from the World Bank to develop about 12 attractions to international standard and I think this is welcome. The marine developing project is yet another important contribution which I believe will boast the industry. But obviously more needs to be done regarding resourcing the industry especially the Ghana tourism Authority in the various regions to carry out their mandate.
Barnabas: Please find out from the guest, as to what are some of the job opportunities available to someone who undertakes tourism and hospitality as a course in the basics and in the universities.
Dr Dayour: Thanks Barnabas.There are many job opportunities here: Those who go through the programme can become entrepreneurs in the accommodation, food and beverage, transport and events sub-sectors. E.g. jobs include hotel, restaurant, and cruise line, event, travel and tours managers, cabin crew, tour guides, and academics. They can also work Ministry of Tourism, Ghana Tourism Authority and other related departments.
Haadi: The tourism Chamber is calling for the testing cost of 150 dollars to be scrapped by government. According to them, the tourist spends not less than 5000 dollars on a trip to tour Ghana. Therefore, government should consider the cost it spends on testing et al, as an incentive to attract more tourists as the many numbers that tour Ghana could make government make more cash to defray the cost it incurred. What’s Doc’s view on the tourism chamber’s position to scrap the 150 dollars testing cost?
Dr Dayour: Thanks, Haadi. To be honest, I feel the $150 for a COVID-19 test will likely deter some budget travellers from choosing GH as a destination. It is a known fact that flight fares to Ghana are quite higher than to other countries which already disadvantages Ghana. So, to pay $150 on arrival for a COVID-19 test may serve to discourage visits and the match anticipated huge visits due to the opening of the airport may be farfetched.
Abdul-Razak: Please Doc! If you have the opportunity to meet the Tourism minister, what advice will you recommend in revamping the Tourism industry?
Dr Dayour: Thanks Abdul-Razak. This is an interesting one and I have already mentioned some already. What is important for me is the diversification of our attraction base to include man-made attractions. The industry depends largely on the natural and historical resources and these easily become uninspiring to visit more than once especially by domestic travelers.
However, theme parks and other gaming facilities in the various regions will cause much pull among the citizenry of the country hence boast Domestic Tourism. I admit these may require huge financial outlay to develop but the long-term dividends are enormous.
Bassing: This discussion is becoming more interesting but we have to allow Doc to rest after the day’s work. Sorry to those whose questions were not attended to for want of time.
The Readers Hub is highly indebted to you with gratitude for finding time out of your busy schedule to interact and share with us your deep-seated knowledge on this very important topic held supra!
Doc! We are most grateful. May the good Lord shower his grace upon you in all your life endeavors. (Exodus: 14:14)
Dr Dayour: Many thanks for the opportunity to interact with colleagues. It was nice sharing with all.
Bassing: We are most grateful Doc! Be informed however that, we shall call on you when the need arises next time.
Dr Dayour: No worries. On standby!
Bassing: And to our ardentReaders, all too soon we have come to the end of yet another interactive, insightful and intellectually engaging episode of our Social Media Monk session. We are most grateful to all those who find time to interact and asked questions where necessary. I am convinced beyond ant reasonable doubt that Readers have picked some useful information out of the interaction on the thematic concern stated supra.
Once again, my name has been Bassing Kamal, who sat in for your regular host –Dr Hakeem Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia). Until we meet same time with another interactive segment of the Social Media Monk session next week, do have a fruitful weekend and a restful night.
Bye!………………………………. ………………………………………………. (Exeunt)
NB: Please don’t forget to share after reading for others to also benefit.
Hub Editor: Bassing. A.M.A. Kamal.
! THE END!