It is our pleasure to bring to you another insightful and intuitive interaction from The Readers Hub on our SOCIAL MEDIA MONK session.

On 22nd June, 2020, The Readers Hub hosted one of its members on its SOCIAL MEDIA MONK handle. It was adroitly moderated by Dr Hakeem. A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia). They discussed extensively on the theme: Cybercrime: Implications on National Development and Ways to Safe Guarding Our Personal Security. Our guest for today is a Health Information System Manager at the Ghana Health Service, a Data Scientist cum Server Administrator and wields expert knowledge in Cyber-fraud, Hacking, and Cybercrime. He will help us to understand how cybercriminals operate, the implications it has on our national development and take us through some safety tips that we need to observe with our digital devices while we are online.


The Digital Age revolution has come as a catalyst for economic and social progress. Information communication has become faster and cheaper for individuals, companies and governments due to the proliferation of digital devices and deeper and wider penetration of the access to the internet globally. Almost every sphere of our lives has been digitized, and many commercial transactions, administrative services and production processes are increasingly being migrated into automated systems and digital platforms. 

As a result, we now rely on electronic and digital systems for medical diagnosis, for job recruitments, for financial transactions, for fighting corruption, and crime, for organizing national elections, for educational purposes, and for dating, among others. Very confidential information for individuals, firms and governments are now being processed, transmitted, and shared via online and stored online and in clouds with satellites.

The above developments notwithstanding, the enormous benefits and positive impact of the digital revolution for human progress, has not come without its pros and cons.Indeed,a  counter-revolution from digital technology crimes has suddenly emerged and the frequency and sophistication by which cybercrime occurs appear to be at pace with the digital revolution and perhaps, a step ahead. The digital technology revolution is swiftly encroaching individual’s right to privacy. Cyber-frauds and cybercrime are becoming ubiquitous and sophisticated to track and combat. Every individual, firm or government is now at risk of cybercrime and fraud and many have already fallen victims to the deleterious and noxious activities of cybercriminals.

We look forward to a very informative and insightful discourse.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Welcome to our Social Media Monk tonight on The Readers Hub Mr. Oswald Dachaga.

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Thank you my brother. It’s a privilege to be here this evening and I feel honored. Great platform by all standards.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Readers Hub is more focused with a pool of experts and professionals willing to share their knowledge to the world.

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Certainly. I kick myself anytime I miss a session here.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Yesterday was Father’s Day; would you mind to share any experience with ReadersHub as a father?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: It was a special feeling for me yesterday. Unfortunately, work took me away from the family, so I didn’t enjoy their company physically yesterday. I felt certainly proud of my family and the fact that, God has entrusted in my hands the upbringing of my boy certainly makes me feel more responsible than before.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Impressive! What do you think are the qualities of a good father?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: I will summarize my thinking of a good father in this quote by Walter M. schirra, Sr. “You don’t raise heroes, you raise sons. And if you treat them like sons, they’ll turn out to be heroes, even if it’s just in your own eyes.” So, my thinking of a good father is one that raises good sons

 Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Impressive! And indeed, very profound! But before we move into the subject matter for tonight, would you mind to share with us some useful experiences and memories whilst growing up and pursuing your life aspirations?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Well, the background and facilities from which I had my education and yet today I am able to engage with you on my opinion on cybercrime and technology is two worlds apart; but that is a topic for another day. My father, who is now senior citizen and a retired educationist, told us (a family of 4 boys) once upon a time that there were no any cattle for us to inherit from him, just as he did not also inherit any from his father. 

He was however quick to add that the best inheritance he got from our grandparents was education and that the banking hall was his cattle ranch. It was an admonishment that we don’t have to joke with our studies. Today I can proudly say I have my own cattle ranch as well as my other brothers.

  I attended school in a remote community in the Wa West District (sag-baalong: about 10km kilometers from Samanbo where I stayed with my family) for my primary and Basic and Secondary Education .I had my Secondary Education at Lassia Tuolu Senior Secondary School also in the Wa West District (now, St. Ignatius of Loyala Senior High School).

I currently hold a Diploma in Health information Management from College of Health Science, Kintampo; formerly Rural Health Training School, BSc. Information and Communication Technology from Presbyterian University College and MSc. Health Informatics from KNUST.I have also undertaken some professional courses in cyber security, server and database administration as well as data science. I am also a member of the Institute of ICT Professionals Ghana (IIPGH).

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Excellent educational journey, thus far. I can see most of the courses you studied in school are more centered on information management and security. What is special about information security, and why should we all be interested in studying information communication security and management?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: The next world war might be about the Digital Revolution. Right from my diploma, I have carefully chosen courses that will aid my practice without limiting me to just Health care. We all need some knowledge on information management at our personal level to survive in the digital Space

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Let’s move more into the thematic concern for today. Could you please help our Readers to understand the terms: cyber-attack, cyber-fraud, cybercrime and hacking?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Let me indicate that these are very broad areas that studied as courses on their own but will do my best to summarize them. Generally speaking, cyber fraud, cyber-attacks and hacking to some extent are all cybercrimes. And indeed, cybercrime or computer-oriented crime is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commissioning of a crime, or it may be the target. 

Cybercrime may threaten a person or a nation’s security and financial health of a country. In fact, the term ‘cybercrime’was coined by Sussman and Heuston in 1995.Cybercrime constitutes illegal acts where a digital device or information system is either a tool or target, or a combination of both. It is best considered as a collection of acts or misconduct, based on the material offence object and modus operandi that affect computer data or systems.

To a larger extend, the term ‘cybercrime’ can be used interchangeably with the terms computer crime, electronic crime, e-crime, high-technology crime, information age crime, cybernetic crime, computer-related crime or digital crime. When we talk of cybercrime, it is usually useful to distinguish between two (2) major categories: Cyber-dependent & Cyber-Enabled;

 The Cyber-dependent crimes (or ‘pure’ cybercrime) are offenses that can only be committed by either using a computer, a computer network or other forms of information communications technology (ICT). This includes the spread of viruses or other malware, hacking and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. If a device or network is connected to the internet, it can be attacked by a cyber-criminal. If they manage to gain access, they can steal your data, monitor what you’re doing or even take control of everything. In addition, they can use the data gathered to commit further offenses like accessing online bank accounts, or committing fraud.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): wonderful, unbelievable and intellectually sound (smiles)

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Cyber-enabled crimes on the other hand are traditional crimes, such as fraud, which can be increased in their scale or reach through the use of computers, or other ICT devices (i.e. mobile phones or computer networks). It is estimated that at least 84% of fraud reported nationally is cyber enabled. This is because computers allow criminals to target a much wider audience for their frauds, with several fraud types being more common than others.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): So now tell us. On what accounts will you say a cyber-attack or hacking becomes a cybercrime?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: A cyber-attack is an attack launched from one or more computers against another computer, multiple computers or networks. It involves two broad types: attacks where the goal is to disable the target computer or knock it offline, or attacks where the goal is to get access to the target computer’s data and perhaps gain administrative privileges on it.

In a related development, cyber fraud, online fraud or forgery exists in many different forms. Victims are tricked through the use of digital technologies. Some examples include online auctions, stock fraud, credit card fraud, telemarketing fraud, false advertising schemes, false damage claims, insider trading, cybersmear campaigns, ad hoc fraud, computer hoaxes, click fraud, Ponzi/pyramid schemes etc.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): It sounds more like some military attacks! These criminals must be callous and heartless!

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Exactly, the next world war which I said may be on information and data may actually be cyber war which has started already anyway (Smiles).

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): May God avert this war, otherwise, developing countries will be the main casualties and victims

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Going forward, the term ‘hacking’ has its roots at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), when it was coined by MIT students to attribute the development of novel techniques to identify computer shortcuts or clever pranks. We may find out from our Readers if anyone has watched War Games (1983)? Truth be told, it exploded the hacking subculture in the digital space. Hackers are the main agents of cybercrime. Their motives can range from just having personal fun like script kiddies defacing websites and breaking passwords – to the satisfaction of being recognized as an elite hacker by breaking cyber security and stealing from Fortune 500 Companies.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): So, do mean it was originally for good purpose?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga Yes! It is actually a profession. Have you ever heard of ethical hacking? There are 3 broad categories of hackers: White Hats, Grey Hats & Black Hats

  1. White hats: These individuals work within the laws of the hacker ethic (to do no harm), or as security experts.
  2. Gray hats: This term was coined by L0pht – one of the best-known old-school hacking groups. These hackers are reformed Black Hats, now working as security consultants.
  3. Black Hats: These hackers are motivated by power, anger or hate. They do not have any qualms about stealing or destroying data from networks that they penetrate

 Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Please is cybercrime as harmful as other crimes such as burglary, rape, murder, etc.?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Before the Internet, criminals had to dig through people’s trash or intercept their mail to steal their personal information. Now that all of this information is available online, criminals also use the Internet to steal people’s identities, hack into their accounts, trick them into revealing the information, or infect their devices with malware. Hacking becomes illegal; and cybercrime once it crosses the threshold of gaining unauthorized access to computer systems. Illegal hacking activities are usually part of organized crime networks, operating with specific motives and a high degree of sophistication.

Going forward, I would say to the extent that IT is the future of globalization, cybercrime is probably a very harmful crime. The personal and societal damage of cybercrime such as revengeporn (cyber felony is the act of distributing sexual images of a victim without their consent). This is very common between disgruntled former partners who are seeking revenge, or by hackers who are blackmailing their victims in search of profit. Cybercriminal activity is one of the biggest challenges that humanity will face in the next two decades, possibly!

 According to the Annual Cybercrime Report which is sponsored by Herjavec Group, a leading global information security advisory firm and Managed Security Services Provider (MSSP) with offices across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Cybercrime is the greatest threat to every company in the world, and one of the biggest problems with mankind. The impact on society is reflected in the numbers.

 Last year, Cyber security Ventures predicted that cybercrime will cost the world $6 trillion annually by 2021, up from $3 trillion in 2015. This represents the greatest transfer of economic wealth in history, risks the incentives for innovation and investment, and will be more profitable than the global trade of all major illegal drugs combined. Sun Tzu’s The Art of War says “know your enemy,” yet many businesses are unfamiliar with the cyber enemies that are attacking them every day. Thus, to be forewarned is to be forearmed!

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): But how do cybercriminals operate? How do they gain access to confidential information of their victims such as passwords, and security codes to launch the cyber-attacks successfully?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: cybercriminal organizations or individuals are pretty much indistinguishable from any well-run, legitimate business operating in a global industry. They are organized, highly motivated, and react quickly to new opportunities and challenges by buying or renting specialist products and services if they don’t have the necessary skills in-house. They deploy multiple strategies on techniques to attain their objectives on successful cybercrime

In our setting, it becomes a lot easier to employ the social engineering techniques and thus it is not surprising that about 90% of the fraud and crime perpetuated especially using social media platforms use our beliefs and relationship system to exploit unsuspecting users online. I am sure almost all of us here would have encountered unsolicited help from the popular “Naa Tia” on Facebook and several criminals parading themselves us “mallams”. 

Besides, password attacks are also effective especially on social media and other platforms because a lot of us do not really create secure passwords and with little efforts, criminals become successful and use other software to decrypt logins. They also do research on potential victims using data leakage and the spear phishing techniques, where they gather some information about their victim(s) who is already available online and use that to perpetuate their spear phishing attacks.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Please what is Social Engineering? 

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: In simple terms, Social Engineering is the hacking of the Human being (smiles). I can imagine how far they go, digging for confidential information of people to defraud and harm them. Social Engineering (hacking the Human) is defined as “The clever manipulation of the natural human tendency to trust.” It’s easier to trick you into opening an infected email than it is to hack into your system. As a result, social engineering has become much more prominent and cyber criminals are trying more diverse ways to get people to undertake tasks, provide information or hand over money using these techniques.

 Readers must however note that Social Engineering comes in three popular forms phishing, smishing and spear phishing. Phishing has been actually coined from fishing

With the Phishing, often cyber criminals will send emails pretending to be someone else or an entity. For example, a bank, online auction site or government department. The aim of the email is to install malware or obtain login credentials. Due to the nature of the internet, they can send out the same email to countless recipients at the same time. According to studies, 90% of cyber breaches started with phishing emails. By making the email appear to be from a legitimate source, the unsuspecting victim (receiver) is more likely to reply or take the action requested in the email. There is however software available that can alter, or “spoof” an email address in the sender line of an email. This means that when you look at the email, it appears to have been sent from someone else.

It is equally worth mentioning that, the email may also be sent from an email address that is similar to the genuine sender i.e. instead of (changing the ‘o’ to a ‘zero’).Without taking time to check the authenticity of the sender’s address, the receiver may believe the email is from a genuine source.

On one hand, the phishing email, for example, could request log in details for internet banking websites, which look identical to real ones. This may be under the guise of security questions to confirm the receiver’s identity. Once inputted, these details can be harvested by the cyber-criminal and can be used to steal from online bank accounts or make purchases from online retailers. Phishing emails may also contain malicious software in attachments that you are directed to open.

It is also possible that the cybercriminal may send tens, or hundreds of thousands of the same phishing email to different email addresses hoping that a small percentage of recipients will reply. It can only take one response with the right information for a cybercriminal to have the opportunity of making thousands of monies. In effect, it’s like throwing a fishing line with a baited worm on the hook into the pond hoping for an unsuspecting fish.

In the case of smishing it is the SMS equivalent of phishing which is usually rampant in email circles. So, the malicious message appears on your phone as a text. Criminals can disguise their phone number to make it look like from a reputable source and try and convince you to click on an attached link. When received, these messages can appear in the same text thread as genuine messages. (Ever received SMS announcing your winning of lottery draw when you indeed never went into one). 

And finally, spear phishing is a more direct form of phishing where the email will target a specific person. Often, the ‘sender’ is shown as a person the receiver knows, for example a work colleague, a more senior employee or someone from the company’s IT department.



  1. How will a lay internet user get to know whether a site is trusted or not so as to prevent him/her from getting tricked into disclosing his essentials?
  2.  How best can one determine a spam message and what are some of the preventive measures from getting them?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: One can take very simple steps to detect social engineering attacks on you. These steps are summarized in six key areas. They are:

  1. Hovering the mouse cursor over the email address or address shown in the sender’s box. This should show the email address the email has actually come from
  2.  Often phishing emails will be sent from an email account similar to a genuine company email address for example or rather than a genuine corporate account such as This gives the impression that the email has come from a legitimate sender, as the corporate name is shown in the sender email address.
  3. Each email platform will have ways in which the actual sender of the email can be found. An internet search will help you find the way for your own specific email platform
  4. If a request for this type of information is made, then it should be verified by making contact with the organization. Don’t reply to, or use any of the contact details from the email, instead use already established details. If you have no contact details already, contact the organization using details sourced from an internet search or other trusted sources.
  5. In addition, 
  6. Neither the banks, nor the police will ever ask for passwords, bank cards or PIN codes, and will certainly never ask you to withdraw or transfer money.
  7. Never login to any type of account (shopping, social media, financial, etc.) by clicking on a link you’ve received in a text or email from unverified sources. Always go to your browser independently, and use your usual links.

Mr. Salihu: What causes memory redundancy in computers?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Memory redundancy typically occurs in malfunctioning memory chips and dead ends.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): Who is most vulnerable or at risk to cyber-attacks? In other words, how do cyber criminals choose their targets?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: As individuals, we are all vulnerable to cyber-attacks and other cybercrime. The only way out is not to hook up to the internet all the time. The real way out is usually to increase your awareness of these threats in order to reduce your risk level.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr Tilapia): What are the common forms of cyber frauds, and how do they manifest?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: Globally the most vulnerable countries are in the developing world while industries such as Health Care, IT & Telcoms, legal, HR & Recruitments, manufacturing and utilities and finance seem to be the most vulnerable to cybercrime. You may be surprised, but social media platforms provide one of the main pools where hackers often go looking for the next victim. Unfortunately, we all disregard privacy rules and often share more than they are supposed to on Facebook

Getting attention on social media platforms might bring you joy, but sharing too many details may end up biting back, as this is the number one spot where hackers go fishing for the next catch to phish. Other sources of their target information include the “dark web”, maybe a topic for another day and then information brokers (i.e. people who generally collect information about individuals and businesses from public networks)

 MR OSMAN: How can one detect an attempt on an electronic account?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: There are several forms of cyber fraud, most common ones would include;

–           Advance fee fraud

–           Banking and card fraud

–           Computer Software service fraud

–           Courier fraud

–           Door-to-door fraud

–           Holiday Fraud

–           Identity Fraud

–           Investment Fraud

–           Online Shopping and auction sites

–           Payment fraud

–           Push Payment Fraud

–           Recruitment fraud

–           Romance and dating fraud

–           Scam Mail

MR SALIHU: What is the future of AI in Ghana?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: AI is the future of technology. Google opened its first Africa Artificial Intelligence lab in Africa in 2019 and guess where it is (In Ghana).

Mr. Oswald Dachaga –         Advance fee fraud: This is an umbrella term to describe a particular fraud type where the criminal convinces a victim to make upfront payments for goods, services and/or financial gains. But the goods/services don’t exist. This takes various forms and I will only mention the common ones that apply in our setting.

  1. Clairvoyant or Psychic Fraud – The criminal predicts something significant in your future, but they need money to provide a full report.
  2. Inheritance Fraud – The criminal tells you that you’re in line to receive a huge inheritance, but you’ll need to pay a fee to release the funds
  3. Lottery Fraud – You’re told you’ve won a prize in a lottery, but you’ll need to pay the criminal some fees before it is processed.
  4. West African Letter Fraud (aka 419 Fraud) – The criminal asks for help moving a large sum of money from one country to another, promising to cut you in, but asks for a payment upfront first.
  5. Work from home Fraud – The criminal offers you to make easy money working from home, but you need to pay a fee in advance, for business leads, or a website.

Recruitment fraud: The majority of these frauds involve the recruiter demanding some kind of payment or fee for Disclosure Barring Service (DBS) checks, training, certification, travel or work permits. The job advert which has attracted applicants is often fake and the recruiter may stop communication once payment is received or ask for more!

Romance and Dating fraud: Criminals will build a relationship with online members, quickly asking to move communication off the dating website. This is to enable them continue their contact with you, even if their profile is later identified by the site as fraudulent and subsequently deleted.

Also note that The Top Ten Cyber Scams in Ghana includes the following starting from number 10; Pin Number Fraud, Mobile money fraud, online fraud, bank mobile app fraud, point of sale fraud, email fraud, pharming (stealing information, use of USB devices) advance fee fraud, remittance fraud, and Card Fraud.

Card fraud is where people are targeted at cash machines by criminals who distract users and steal their card or cash. Fraudsters also fit devices to the machines that trap bank cards, copy the card details and record the PIN. You must be vigilant when taking money out of a cash machine and not let anyone distract you.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): These criminals are indeed, gold-diggers! Talking about   passwords, most of us have email accounts, Facebook account and other electronic communication and social media accounts. Is it advisable to use one password for all accounts so that we don’t burden ourselves with memorizing multiple passwords?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: It can be a daunting task if care is not taken at personal level. Most Software and online systems have inbuilt security systems and encryptions that are used to detect such intrusions and thereby notify users on how to mitigate the impact of such access when they occur.

If you have properly set up your social media account or email accounts, you are mostly likely to get notifications on your account and other alternate accounts on a possible breach of your online either. It may come as a login from an unrecognized location or computer or browser. This mostly comes with warnings and recommendations to change your password immediately (you need to be careful with this feature as cybercriminals will sometimes suing phishing techniques similar to this feature in order to get your actual password. Keeping one password or pattern for your online accounts is like locking only the main gate to your mansion. (smiles)

The following could be useful pointers that your device or account could have been compromised;

–           You get a ransomware or fake antivirus message

–           You have unwanted browser toolbars and internet searches being redirected

–           You see frequent, random popups

–           Your friends receive social media invitations from you that you didn’t send

–           Your online password isn’t working

–           You observe unexpected software installs or your mouse moves between programs and makes selections

–           Antimalware, Task Manager or Registry Editor is disabled

–           You’ve been notified by someone you’ve been hacked

–           Confidential data has been leaked

–           You observe strange network traffic patterns

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: So, once your Facebook account, Gmail account and internet banking account are actually your name or hometown, or child’s name or month of birth and other personal attributes that cybercriminals could easily find out on your social media handles.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): In order to ensure I can always remember my password; you mean I cannot choose ‘tilapia’ or “tilapia + my birthday” or “tilapia+hakeem” as my password?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: You will become very vulnerable to attacks if you practice this. It is easy for password attack applications to guess dictionary words and our bio information are also scattered around various social media platforms that can be harvested and fed into a software system to perpetuate password attacks for unauthorized access to our online accounts or portals.

Dr Hakeem A.Tahiru (Dr.Tilapia): For instance, if Baluri has multiple passwords for multiple electronic communication and media accounts, and cannot hold them all on his head, is it okay to write them in his diary so that when he is unable to remember the password for one of his accounts, he can easily trace it from his diary?

Mr. Oswald DachagaBalure is likely to forget of that diary on his desk in the office and by the time he returns from lunch, the cyber-party would have taken what he wanted already. Indeed, there are very good software systems that allows one to store your password(s) in one place with a state on the art encryption but it still comes will a substantial amount of risk and not so cheap anyway. It is never also a good practice to write down your passwords: Memorizing your password(s) is the only sure bet to keep them from second and third parties.

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): Who can I share my password with? My wife? Trusted friend?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: High treason! (Smiles). No one, not even the one you have become one in Holy matrimony. It is not a show of love; you are simply increasing your vulnerability threshold. This can be allowed in “bedmantics” but not in the cyberspace.

 It is important to safeguard vital personal information on your devices while they are under repairs. If possible, avoid giving access logins to technicians while they repair these devices, where necessary give such access personally and be present while they carry out these maintenance work and remember to change you access codes and passwords immediately after the repair works. Also make sure you use authorized and certified IT service points for your laptops and mobile devices 

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): What do I do, where do I turn to, upon realizing I am a victim of cybercrime or noticed that cybercriminals have gained unauthorized access to my password/passcode etc.

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: The first step is to report the crime to law enforcement agencies. If you think you have uncovered a scam, have been targeted by a scam or fallen victim, there are many authorities you can contact for advice or to make a report. In Ghana, you can call the Police through their emergency line (18555) and your case will be handled by the cybercrime Unit. Cybercrime can also be reported to the National Cyber Security Centre (visit:

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): It has been an exhaustive and insightful interaction with you Mr. Oswald Dachaga. You are such a huge resource for Ghana in the area of information communication and security. May you please give as your concluding remarks and summary of key tips for our cyber safety and security?

Mr. Oswald Dachaga: I know it is still a learning process and I believe there are great senior colleagues in the area of IT and Cybercrime on this platform as well. I acknowledge them. I would like to sign out with the following tips. I call it my Cyber Advice

  1. Have Strong passwords
  2. Use Antivirus (buy them and avoid cracked and free antivirus software)
  3. Always update your device software and make sure you are running the latest compactible version for your device from the manufacturers)
  4. Always back up your data on your devices to secondary storage systems and keep them safe.
  5. Turn on 2FA. It proves you are who you claim to be online
  6. Don’t use free Wi-Fi for everything
  7. Don’t click or unverified links or attachments
  8. Don’t share everything on social media
  9. Always question request for personal Information
  10. Report all fraud and cybercrime to the nearest police station

Dr Hakeem A. Tahiru (Dr. Tilapia): I have learnt so much from you tonight and I think I have to change some of my online habits! I hope Readers have found this encounter to be educative, helpful and informative. Thank you Mr. Oswald Dachaga for sharing this crucial expert knowledge with us. God bless you! And thank you fellow Readers for granting us audience. Have a restful night!

NB: Please don’t forget to share after reading for others to also benefit.

HUB EDITOR: Bassing. A.M.A. Kamal